Complete diagnosis for HSA patients includes hermatology, serum biochemistry, coagulation testing and thoracoabdominal imaging, +/- abdominocentesis, and/or echocardiography and thoracic radiographs. Surgery remains the primary method of treatment for all dogs with HSA. Cutaneous tumors are curable with surgery alone. But before the surgery appropriate treatment for shock like crystalloids, colloids and severe coagulation anomalies should be addressed. The surgery here is quite aggressive because all the locally affected tissues have to be removed. For splenic HSA vets go for splenectomy. During operation, the entire abdomen is thoroughly examined and all the lesions are sent for histopathology. Dogs undergoing this surgery are susceptible to arrhythmia (irregular heart beats). Thus, post operation an ECG is needed to monitor the heart beats of dogs. This issue gets resolved in 24-48 hours. An open or thoracoscopic pericardiectomy is a palliative procedure that allows effusion to escape into thorax instead of accumulating in the pericardium where a small volume can restrict function.

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